Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and degenerative disease of the central nervous system. The clinical signs of this condition can predate the lesion load appearing on imaging by years, and vice versa. MR imaging has been the main stay of diagnosing and following up MS.
Advanced neuroimaging techniques can help in several ways. Diffusion MRI can provide vital information about the 'normal appearing white and grey matter' in individuals, not visible on routine sequences, and these abnormalities can potentially guide the clinicians in selecting the right form of disease modifying agent for treatment, as well as in the follow up of patients.
Further, volumetric analysis using sophisticated software can assist with monitoring brain volume loss, either in general, or specific to certain structures such as the thalami- as neurodegeneration in these individuals can explain cognitive changes.